Wednesday, August 26, 2020
There are four essential molding hypotheses of behaviorism. These four hypotheses are PavlovÃ¢â¬â¢s (1849-1936) traditional molding, ThorndikeÃ¢â¬â¢s (1874-1949) connectionism (otherwise called law of impact), GuthrieÃ¢â¬â¢s (1886-1959) adjoining molding, and SkinnerÃ¢â¬â¢s (1904-1990) operant molding. As indicated by the content (Shunk 2012) Classical molding was found around the start of the twentieth century by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov. Pavlov was considering stomach related procedure in hounds when he found that the canines salivated before they got their food. Pavlov used a tuning fork and meat powder. He hit the tuning fork and followed the sound with the meat powder. At the outset, the canine salivated distinctly to the meat powder, yet after this was rehashed, salivated at the sound of the tuning fork. In old style molding, a subject figures out how to connect one boost with another. The subject discovers that the main improvement is a sign for the subsequent boost. As it were, the meat powder is an unconditioned boost and the salivation is the unconditioned reaction. The tuning fork is a nonpartisan upgrade until the pooch figures out how to relate the tuning fork with food. At that point the tuning fork turns into an adapted improvement which delivers the molded reaction of salivation after rehashed pairings between the tuning fork and food. As indicated by GuthrieÃ¢â¬â¢s Contiguous Conditioning the main condition important for the relationship of boosts and reactions is that there is a nearby ordered connection between the improvements. Guthrie expresses that discipline and prize have no noteworthy job in the learning procedure in light of the fact that the prize and discipline happen after the relationship between the boost and the reaction has been made. He additionally accepted that you can utilize diverting change past molding. Derailing finding the underlying signals for the propensity and partner other conduct with those prompts. In this way diverting the inner relationship to separate. As such overlooking is because of impedance instead of the progression of time. Operant molding was spearheaded by B.F. Skinner and based on the traditional molding work of Ivan Pavlov (McLeod 2007). It is a strategy for discovering that happens through remunerations and disciplines for conduct. Through these prizes and disciplines, an affiliation is made between a conduct and a ramification for that conduct. In operant molding, conduct happens all the more often when followed by fortification, and happens less every now and again when followed by discipline. The thought is that conduct is affected by the results that follow. At the point when you are compensated for accomplishing something, you are bound to rehash that conduct. At the point when you are rebuffed for accomplishing something you are more averse to rehash that conduct. As per the content (Shunk 2012) ThorndikeÃ¢â¬â¢s connectionism has two sections. First when a specific conduct is trailed by a prize, that conduct is bound to happen again later on. Second is that if a specific conduct is trailed by a discipline that conduct is more averse to happen again later on. Consequently the compensating conduct is found out and the rebuffing conduct isn't found out. Connectionism underlines that the more prominent the prize or discipline, the more noteworthy the fortifying or debilitating of the affiliation. Behaviorism depends on the reason that conduct is a component of its natural outcomes or possibilities. Behaviorism was the essential worldview in brain research between the 1920s through 1950 and depends on various hidden presumptions with respect to approach and social investigation (McLeod 2007). Behaviorism manages the results of conduct and those practices can be compensated or rebuffed. Prize fortifications can reinforce practices or increment the conduct for instance, giving applause advances great conduct. Disciplines objective is to diminish the conduct or probability of it happening once more. A positive to behaviorism is that it will in general foresee the conduct in specific conditions. The conceivable outcomes to foresee is the way to controlling conduct and subsequently evade unnecessary responses. Another positive, is the thought of remunerations and discipline in behaviorism can be extremely helpful so as to adjust to the necessary conduct. At the end of the day behaviorism proposes that one can anticipate and adjust conduct by deliberately controlling the outcomes. Interestingly the shortcoming of behaviorism is that it endeavors to clarify all the activities of an individual just through obvious events, making it difficult to straightforwardly watch the event of awareness. So the principle restriction is that the conduct of an individual is consistently an educated affiliation that was once bolstered or rebuffed. Behaviorism somehow or another disregards the independence of each individual by making the suspicion that individuals are not answerable for what they do yet rather infers that the entirety of the social demonstrations of an individual are based past remunerations/outcomes experienced. Behaviorism ideas can be applied to in home family guiding. Initially, gauging exercises, undertakings and case plan targets to compare with the corresponding measure of exertion one might want for the family to place into these exercises remunerates and fortifies family exertion, contribution and execution in those territories. Likewise, giving input during the advancement of the case plan and finish of case plan targets compensates and strengthens learning after some time, and should bring about better maintenance and ability improvement. This later sort of fortification as often as possible happens with the guardians yet in addition can be utilized adequately teenagers also as things, for example, errand outlines. The standards of behaviorism can be helpful in encouraging learning inside the in home advising. In any case, they don't represent the inspiration or thought behind activities taken in light of the fact that behaviorism centers around practices that can be watched as it were. For instance a family could be finishing targets for a situation plan essentially just to have the case shut as opposed to really advance in their child rearing aptitudes. As indicated by the content (Shunk 2012) self-guideline includes practices, as people manage their practices to keep themselves concentrated on objective fulfillment. Behaviorism expresses that conduct is found out, and new learning is a consequence of gaining new standards of conduct by methods for ecological molding. It tends to be contended that there is a connection between's the two, in any event from a learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s viewpoint. It very well may be said that self-guideline is dependent on objective setting and self-adequacy. Along these lines except if students have objectives and feel that getting them is significant, a student may not initiate the procedures required for self-guideline. Behaviorism could introduce itself as exemplary molding that being found out conduct dependent on experience. A student realizes that so as to handle a class one must excel on allocated work. The student would then focus on it to work steadily on said work, through the procedure of self-guideline. The accentuation put on the work would be done as such because of the scholarly conduct that in the event that one doesn't do well one would get a not exactly heavenly evaluation and along these lines risk not handling the class. References Schunk, D. H. (2012). Learning hypotheses: An instructive point of view, sixth ed. Boston, MA: Pearson.Fields, H. (2011). Is Behaviorism Dead? Recovered from http://www.scholarshub.wordpress.com McLeod, S. A. (2007).Behaviorism. Recovered from http://www.simplypsychology.org/behaviorism.html
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Sweat trickled down her back; butterflies assembled in her stomach as she bit her fingernails and strolled down her long tight square. When she showed up home, her sister Rani requested to see her test. She gradually and carefully took out the folded bit of paper that she was so apprehensive about and which decided her future. Out of nowhere, inside a flicker of an eye, her sister Rani smacked her. Ã¢â¬Å"What is this?Ã¢â¬ (Pointing at the test paper) Rani Screamed She had no answer. It was quiet for a second. The main clamor that originated from her was the sound of her tears. Ã¢â¬Å"How and for what reason did you get a 80? Where are the other 20 points?Ã¢â¬ Rani Demanded Ã¢â¬Å"UmUmÃ¢â¬ She muttered Ã¢â¬Å"Next time I better observe a 100Ã¢â¬ Rani screeched She remained there crying, tears moving down her face as quick downpour tumbles down a lofty slope. Numerous years cruised by, and inside this time her evaluations started to improve. We will compose a custom article test on Champ or on the other hand any comparable subject explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page She now cheerfully and enthusiastically gave her test papers to her sister Rani. One day Ã¢â¬Å"WowÃ¢â¬ Rani Exclaimed. Ã¢â¬Å"YouÃ¢â¬â¢ve been accepting 100Ã¢â¬â¢s on your previous few testsÃ¢â¬ Rani said with help. Ã¢â¬Å"Yeah, I know, yet you donÃ¢â¬â¢t appear to be cheerful, whatÃ¢â¬â¢s the matter?Ã¢â¬ She addressed. Ã¢â¬Å"Well I am upbeat, I am quite cheerful that I am nearly relievedÃ¢â¬ Rani said with a grin. Ã¢â¬ What do you mean?Ã¢â¬ She addressed. Ã¢â¬Å"As you realize I dropped out of secondary school. I guaranteed myself and mother and father that I could never let any other individual submit a similar slip-up I did. I lament dropping out.Ã¢â¬ Rani said as her grin gradually blurred away. Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s OK, I know, itÃ¢â¬â¢s not your faultÃ¢â¬ She says with consolation. Ã¢â¬Å"Do you ever know why I smacked you when each time you got grades lower than a 100? I didn't need you to experience something very similar I didTell me you will never give up.Ã¢â¬ She said with trust. Ã¢â¬Å"I guarantee I will never surrender. I additionally guarantee to push ahead and accomplish my goals.Ã¢â¬ She said cheerfully. A couple of years cruise by; she effectively moves on from rudimentary and center school. She is as of now in secondary school. Moreover she has developed scholastically, inwardly, and intellectually. Solid, supported, and daring she has figured out how to settle on choices dependent on profound quality and not abhor and shame. On the off chance that deterrents strike in school she won't quit, rather sheÃ¢â¬â¢ll proceed onward and one day will be the victor.
Tuesday, August 18, 2020
Understanding Blooms Taxonomy for Learning Faster Have you ever wondered how we as humans learn and use our knowledge to progress through life?What is the basis of our knowledge and which steps does our brain take to implement everything we learned not just from school but from life in general?Well, it turns out that a famous American educational psychologist wanted to answer this question roughly sixty years ago and working with other psychologists he published a book called Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, which was meant to help not only teachers but also students to learn better and faster.Imagine it like a guide for the teachers made for the purpose of knowing how to manage the process of learning in the students so they can not only remember what theyâve learned but also fully understand the subject they are taking and at the end even produce their own work.This all sounds a bit hard to imagine, even for me as I entered into college because I didnt know exactly how to process the huge amount of information poured down on me every lecture let alone to produce something of my own, but after learning about Blooms taxonomy I quickly started to get a grip of what to do with the information Ive to remember and use it to my advantage. WHAT IS LEARNING?Before we start to explain Bloomâs taxonomy first we must discuss what is considered learning so that we can understand how to learn faster using the taxonomy.Our whole experience is the result of learning â" our ability to speak, to understand concepts, to use different knowledge, our skills and views, social roles and so on.Learning by definition is a relatively permanent and specific change in our personality which can manifest through our behavior and is a result of the previous action.It has an adaptive characteristic meaning it widens the repertoire of inherited activities which go beyond our inherited behavior, for example reflexes and instincts.Now that weâve briefly explained what learning is we can dwell deep into Bloomâs taxonomy and see how he viewed the process of learning, and also what we can change in our way of studying in order to acquire the proper knowledge of the world. A SHORT BACKGROUND ON BENJAMIN BLOOMBenjamin Bloom, born on February 21st in 1913, was as I said a psychologist who had a lot of influence on the theory of mastery learning and contributed to the classification of educational objectives.He was a ground-breaking educational psychologist who really paved the way for understanding how we actually learn things and what goes on in our minds when we study and also what are the methods which can be used to by both the teacher and the student in order to get better results.Working with other psychologists such as Max Englehart, Edward Furst, Walter Hill, and David Krathwohl, he published his ground-breaking book published in 1956, called Taxonomy of Educational Objectives famously called today Bloomâs Taxonomy.And thus the Bloomâs Taxonomy was born, but the original version isnât used as much as the adapted version mainly because the book is sixty years old and a lot of study on the topic of education has been done since then.Thatâs why psychologists who studied this topic wanted to implement everything theyâve learned in Bloomâs taxonomy without changing the original concept, and we should be thankful to them and Bloom for giving us this finished product.BLOOMS ORIGINAL TAXONOMYIn the book, he presented six major categories and every category had a subcategory but itâs important to remember the main ones because they go from concrete to abstract. The list below will be explaining the main categories:Knowledge â" By knowledge Bloom meant the recall of specific and universal subjects, methods and processes and also the recall of patterns, structure, and settings. Comprehension â" It refers to understanding and using the material or ideas weve learned so that know what we are talking about with other people without relating it to other subjects or material and usin g other implications. Application â" This means to use abstractions in some particular and concrete situations.Analysis â" By this, he meant to breakdown the communication into key elements so the ideas and concepts are clearer and easier to understand without leaving the original topic and also to make them more explicit. Synthesis â" It means collecting the key elements and ideas and forming them into a whole.Evaluation â" This refers to making judgments on the value of the material and methods used for a given purpose.ADAPTED BLOOMS TAXONOMYThe Blooms Taxonomy as we know it today was adopted in a newer version by a group of psychologists and was published in 2001, and in this version, the famous Blooms Taxonomy pyramid was created.Why do we use this adapted version you may ask? Mainly because the concepts portraying Bloomâs original idea are easier to understand and use with this newer version and it became such a classical representation that people tend to think it is Blo omâs original concept. Poor Bloom.All jokes aside, the newer version really did shed light on Blooms idea on how to learn faster and easier and is now used by many teachers and professors across the globe.Helping both the students and the teachers and really if you boil it down, this new version hasnt really strayed far from Blooms original intentions.This newer version kept the basic categories that Bloom has presented but it has also widened the theory and even portrayed the four types of knowledge which we will get back to later.For now, let us focus on what the adapted taxonomy looks like.1. RememberingThis is the base of the pyramid and is referred to what Bloom meant when he talked about knowledge.It depicts how we remember key ideas, shapes, material, structures and so and which are the processes that are carried out in our mind when we try to remember all of that.There are literal verbs to describe what the word remembering means in terms of Bloomâs taxonomy and I will b e doing this for every category.Remembering means: copying; defining; finding; locating; quoting; listening; repeating; retrieving; outlining; highlighting; memorizing; networking; searching; identifying; selecting; tabulating; duplicating; matching; bookmarking and bullet-pointing.Knowing this, your job as a teacher is to help the student learn all of these tactics so they can have a better way of remembering the subject you are presenting them and also itâs the studentâs job to try to implement these methods in his studying in order to acquire the proper understanding of the subject. 2. UnderstandingThe second level of the pyramid, understanding, is similar to Bloomâs concept of comprehension.It explains how the student can grasp the knowledge he has learned and truly see what the subject is all about, of course first he has to remember what the subject is and what key elements compile it.Understanding means: annotating; associating; tagging; summarizing; relating; categoriz ing; paraphrasing; predicting; comparing; contrasting; commenting; journaling; interpreting; grouping; inferring; estimating; extending; gathering; exemplifying and expressing.The teachers job is to try to explain a new concept to the student by giving examples and digging deep into its actual meaning before going to practical use of the concept, because without the definition of the concept students tend to use the words theyve learned without a clear understanding of what that concept truly means.3. Applying This is the third level of the taxonomy. It has the same meaning as in Bloomâs original concept and means that the student needs to apply his knowledge in real situations in order to truly portray his knowledge of the subject.Applying means: acting out; articulate; reenact; choosing; determining; displaying; judging; executing; examining; implementing; sketching; experimenting; hacking; interviewing; painting; preparing; playing; integrating; presenting and charting.4. Analy zingOnce again, same as Blooms concept but has a wider definition.Basically, it means that the student needs to be able to analyze and figure out what the concepts related in the subject truly mean with or without the teacherâs help.Picture it as taking off the training wheels and letting the student figure out things with his own brain without the teacher interfering with his work, but as always the teacherâs job is to guide the student in the right path.Analyzing means: calculating; categorizing; breaking down; correlating; deconstructing; linking; mashing; mind-mapping; organizing; appraising; advertising; dividing; distinguishing; illustrating; structuring; questioning; integrating; attributing; estimating and explaining.This really is the most crucial level of the taxonomy because it is the stepping stone of the whole process of learning and that is thinking with your own head, because what good is the knowledge that you know if you just learn it from one source and donâ t stop and think if it actually true.5. EvaluatingYes, I know that this was the last category of Bloomâs concept but in this adapted version it is the fifth level of knowledge and for a good reason.This is mainly because Blooms original idea was to explain which are the processes that are carried out in our mind when it comes across new information and how it uses it.But this adapted version ads a new category, which we will explain later so, for now, let us see what evaluating means.Evaluating means: arguing; validating; testing; assessing; criticizing; commenting; debating; defending; detecting; experimenting; grading; hypothesizing; measuring; moderating; posting; predicting; rating; reflecting; reviewing and editorializing.In contrast to analyzing, evaluating is a mighty tool which can be used to differentiate which elements of the subject are more important to understand that the others and this gives the students a clearer understanding on how to deal with massive amounts of information and how to extract the information that they need.6. CreatingThe sixth and the final level of learning is not what Bloom had in mind but this adapted version made ground-breaking evidence that the knowledge learned is best portrayed by the creation of a self-made work, for example, a written paper, essay or even a doctorate.Creating means: blogging; building; animating; adapting; collaborating; composting; directing; devising; podcasting; writing; filming; programming; simulating; role-playing; solving; mixing; facilitating; managing; negotiating and leading. This may well be the answer to the studentâs most often asked question â" why do we need to take written tests?Well, because when you donât look at a test as a torture method and really a way for you as a student to write a creative answer to the questions in the test and in that way to create maybe even a never before seen approach to the subject, Iâm sure you will be proud of how much youâve progresse d.KNOWLEDGE TAXONOMYThis taxonomy is used in order to represent the different types of knowledge a student can have and also will serve as a guide tool for the teacher so that they know what to expect when they come across with students who are learning some subjects slower than others but perfect in other subjects.Factual knowledge â" This kind of knowledge is based on knowledge of terminology and also specific details and elements.Conceptual knowledge â" It refers to the knowledge of classifications and categories, principles and generalizations and theories, models and structures.Procedural knowledge â" Its the knowledge of subject-specific skills and algorithms, techniques and methods and criteria for determining when to use appropriate procedures.Metacognitive knowledge â" It consists of strategic knowledge, knowledge of cognitive tasks (appropriate contextual and conditional knowledge) and self-knowledge.Whatâs really great about this knowledge taxonomy is that by combin ing the types of knowledge with the levels of knowledge from Bloomâs taxonomy you can get a real representation of how the two are connected and also they explain not only the process but also the activity which is associated with a certain objective.For example, if you combine remembering with procedural knowledge you will recall how to do CPR, or if you combine understanding with factual knowledge you will summarize features of a new product.This is quite helpful when teachers want to make curriculum plans or even if they plan on having a project done among groups of students so if you are a teacher reading this keep that in mind.WHAT DO WE USE BLOOMS TAXONOMY FOR?Now that we have covered the basics of Bloomâs Taxonomy it is time to see how it can be implemented into your study as a student and lessons program as a teacher in order to get better results.Its not all about getting good grades, what is more, important is to make the student learn faster and also much easier than just cramming information in his brain.It is important for the teacher to come up with objectives for the student to complete when they have a new lesson or every two weeks at least so the student is constantly involved in the subject and to stop him from forgetting the crucial concepts.Bloomâs Taxonomy can be used for:Creating assessments â" meaning it can be used to document the studentâs knowledge to see how far did he went in understanding and learning a certain subject.Lesson planning â" it can also be used by the teacher to plan the lessons he/her is going to teach step by step in order to introduce the student with the basic concepts and later present him with abstract examples.Evaluating assignments â" this refers to knowing how to present the assignments that the student must fulfill and also to give him complex tasks to do considering his current knowledge level.Curriculum design â" it can also be used to design a sort of a map of the curriculum for both students a nd teachers to know how the lessons should be organized along with which concepts should be introduced first and which later.Project-based learning â" this is also a good way to assign projects to students and using all those verbs that we described they can serve as guidance when completing the project. For example, you as a teacher can assign one or a group of students to make a survey about a certain topic and they will have to finish the project by using the methods from Bloomâs taxonomy.Self-assessment â" this can also come in handy for students in order to see where they stand in a certain subject and it is crucial for them to understand what they can do in order to have better results.LEARNING SHOULD BE FUN AND EASYNow I need to shed some light on learning itself because I hate to break it to you but not all students like to study and find joy in doing so.There are some students that actually hate anything that has to do with school or college or any type of hard thinking .However, this is where Blooms taxonomy can fall into place because it dissects the process of learning into the categories we discussed earlier and will surely give those kinds of students some motivation to try hard and do their best.Besides, learning is fun once you figure out what a certain subject is composed of, and when you implement all the levels of knowledge from Bloomâs pyramid any student will at least find the subject easier that he/she did before.The good thing is that Bloomâs taxonomy can be used for any subject out there, from learning a new language, history to even understanding rocket science.It can be implemented in such a way that the student can actually have fun learning.And having fun while learning is really important because we associate knowledge with emotions meaning if a subject can spark joy we will understand its concepts better and will actually enjoy learning it.For example, I hated learning German and quite frankly I still do but once I heard ab out Bloomâs taxonomy I noticed what I needed to do in order to learn German better and I canât deny that it really helped me.THE PROBLEM OF TODAYS LEARNING AND HOW BLOOMS TAXONOMY FIXES ITYou see, we need to understand that conventional education forces the students to learn the subjects their teachers present them without any hard thinking about why do they even learn those subjects let alone allowing them to think outside the box.What Blooms taxonomy changed was the overall connection between the teacher and his students because using the taxonomy they both can track the progress which the student is making and also provides them with essential tools to understand at what level does the student stand when it comes to know that subject.It is an often sighting that even a student with a college degree doesnt seem to have grasped the knowledge he learned in college and for that reason, Blooms taxonomy should be used by every school and college.I know that everyone has their own s tudy method, but itâs not about that, the taxonomy should be used to understand what you know and what you donât know about a certain subject and of course in what way to retain most of your knowledge so that you can understand fully all the concepts of the subject.Not only will you learn faster with using the taxonomy but you will also learn how that knowledge is being processed in the brain making you be able to understand concepts more quickly and save time by remembering what you already know.FINAL WORDI hope that this article was useful for both teachers and students wanting to be more productive and learn faster by not making school harder than it needs to be and also progressing to that stage of development where students can, with quite ease, understand even the most complex concepts.It is time for the teachers to take notes and implement this taxonomy when they plan their curriculum which will benefit not only them because they will save time having to plan it every yea r but also the students because they will see their grades getting higher right before their eyes.
Sunday, May 24, 2020
Fadi El-Hajj English 102 December 18, 2013 TV: Hijacking the Psychosocial and Physical Well-Being of Children Ã¢â¬Å"If everyone demanded peace instead of another television set, then thereÃ¢â¬â¢d be peaceÃ¢â¬ (John Lennon). That is a funny quote indeed, but it also sheds light on a sad reality that the world faces today: People are becoming more attached to their television sets and mobile handsets, among other gadgets, than they are to each other. In fact, television sets have become an integral part of individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ lives across the globe, to such an extent that Lennon implies that it has become more demanded than world peace! However, opinions vary as to whether TV brings positive or negative prospects to the well-being of individuals. Some say it is a revolution that we can no longer do without. Others are more pessimistic and perceive TV as a distracting plague. Regardless of the benefits that people have derived from TV, it does nevertheless bear negative effects on at least a subset of the general population. In particular, TV has detrimental consequences on the well-being of children in terms of psychosocial development and physical health. Among the various negative consequences that are inflicted by television, those which are dealt to childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s psychosocial development are particularly damaging. For one, violent and sexually explicit media content broadcasted through the television outlet
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
Ã¯ » ¿Responsibility in Ã¢â¬ËOf Men and MiceÃ¢â¬â¢ SteinbeckÃ¢â¬â¢s novel Ã¢â¬ËOf Men and MiceÃ¢â¬â¢, written during the great depression, has received many criticisms. The novel is quite short but has content that leaves a reader questioning the decisions of some characters in the novel. Circumstances described in the novel force most of the characters to make hard choices. Some choices present high levels of responsibility and serve to foster peace in the ranch. Other characters act irresponsibly making mistakes that distract the peaceful co-existence of people working on the ranch. This paper will consider the responsibility level of the characters George, Slim, and Curley. George appears from the beginning of the story as a man who takes responsibility of his childhood friend Lennie. He made efforts to protect Lennie who often got the duo into problems with his physical strength and mental disability. When seeking jobs in the new ranch, George took the responsibility of covering the weaknesses of his friend (Steinbeck 6). In many occasions, he reprimanded Lennie concerning his handling of dead mice. In these cases, he presented a responsibility in terms of hygiene. We will write a custom essay sample on Theme of Responsibility in Of Mice and Men or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now He cautioned his friend of the possibility of catching a disease through handling dead animals. He presents a sense of personal responsibility in the sense that he worked hard in the ranch and had dreams of developing himself to the level of a farm owner some day. However, he presents moral irresponsibility because he was one of the men who visit brothels. In addition, the move he opted to take at the end of the novel raises a controversy. After realizing that his friend Lennie was about to face the wrath of Curley, he decided to take away his life. Although he protected his friend from any harm and gave him cautions to avoid any chaos on the ranch, one wonders whether he had the justification to take his life. This episode has two sides. He acted irresponsibly to take the life of a fellow man. In a different perspective, he took the responsibility of protecting his friend from painful death, indignation, and humiliation. Slim presents attributes of responsibility through out his stay in the ranch. He had expertise in the Ã¢â¬ËskinnerÃ¢â¬â¢ profession. In addition, he was a diligent worker in the ranch. This is the case because he earned respect from other workers in the ranch because of his sense of responsibility and dedication (Shmoop 3). Slim was among the workers that ensured the success of the ranch. His contribution was of considerable worth because it translated to the farmÃ¢â¬â¢s success. He presents a social responsibility attribute in the way he understood George and Lennie. He appreciated the sacrifices they made for their friendships. When George chose to kill Lennie to prevent him from CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wrath, he took the responsibility of consoling George. He understood the pain George went through in the entire ordeal. Curley appears as the irresponsible son of the boss of the ranch. His actions gave rise to chaos in the ranch. His wife became the cause of his anger and wrath towards the workers (Shmoop 3). He was an irresponsible husband because his wife confesses to feeling lonely. If he were responsible for the welfare and needs of his wife, she would have acted like a contented wife. On the contrary, he denied her the companionship she expected from their marriage. His marriage irresponsibility caused his wife to seek attention from the workers prompting Curley to erupt in anger and jealousy. The workers experienced a continuous fear from him because they realized he did not know how to tame his temper. His irresponsibility came out clearly, when he left his wife to join other men in their ventures to the brothel. This act prompted the occurrence of other events. Since he left his wife alone, loneliness drove her to LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s attention. Through their conversation, she realized his addic tion to caressing soft things. CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife then gave in to Lennie to feel the touch of her hair. On sensing LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s physical strength, the wife let out a scream that frightened Lennie. This fright caused Lennie to break her neck accidentally leading to her death. The irresponsibility of one man led to fatal events. LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s action gave rise to a lot of fury and wrath from Curley. Consequently, LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s action forced George to make the hard decision of killing his friend (Shmoop 4). CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s irresponsibility led to chaos in the ranch forcing the workers to make tough decisions. Conclusively, it is evident that responsibility is one of themes in the novel. Some characters portray attributes that depict that they are responsible in some aspects of life. However, others act irresponsibly distracting the peace of the ranch and causing chaos. The novel presents a time when survival depended on the dedication to struggling, to overcome barriers. As de scribed, George, Slim and Curley are three of the characters that Steinbeck used to portray the theme of responsibility. Their responsible and irresponsible actions affected the welfare of the entire ranch. CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s actions have gross effects on the ranch. Work Cited Of Mice and Men, by John Steinbeck. Sunnyvale, Calif. : Shmoop University, 2010. Internet resource. Steinbeck, John. Of Mice and Men. London: Penguin, 2000. Internet resource.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The religion of Islam, unfortunately, has been exposed many unfair criticisms from nonmuslims. Especially about how Islamic Laws are treated towards the women. There are plenty of misinterpretations and accusations. We will write a custom essay sample on The Religion of Islam or any similar topic only for you Order Now It needs to mention about fundamental and basic principles in Islam.According to Islam, human beings are not evil and sinful creatures, and they do not come to the world with tendency to sin. Human beings are not sinful until they choose to sin. Unlike Christianity, a newborn baby considered to be pure, innocent, and considered as if s(he) a given present from Allah. There is even a saying in Turkish Ã¢â¬Ëlike a paradise-scented childÃ¢â¬â¢. This saying refers that the children are innocent and as if they are coming from the paradise. Also, every human is equal in Islam regardless of their race, color, and class. Islam is not definite with only one age, it is for every age. Khurshid Ahmad describes the aim of Islam as, Islam aims at establishing an equilibrium between these two aspects of life Ã¢â¬â the material and the spiritual. (36)Another detail in Islam is that how Quran describes Eve. In Quran, Eve is not represented an evil or a seductive woman. Quran puts an equivalent blame on AdamÃ¢â¬â¢s and EveÃ¢â¬â¢s mistake. It does not separate Eve from Adam. Eve is not portrayed as a deceiver or a seducer. Eve is not blamed for seducing Adam to eat the fruit from the forbidden tree. Actually, in Quran Surah Taha, verse 121Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¦ Thus, Adam disobeyed his Lord, and fell.Ã¢â¬ This verse states that Adam is especially blamed for the sin not Eve. Another important detail is that the original sin concept. It does not exist in Islam. For this reason, AdamÃ¢â¬â¢s sin is not inherited to the other human beings like it does in Christianity. This is because Adam and Eve repented to Allah and they had forgiven. Allah does not punish anyone for otherÃ¢â¬â¢s sins. Therefore, in Islam, everyone is responsible for their own actions, and their own sins.The Quran provides clear-cut evidence that woman in completely equated with man in the sight of Allah in terms of her rights and responsibilities (Ahmad 136). In Quran Surah Al- Imran verse 195 Ã¢â¬ Their Lord answered the Prayer thus: Ã¢â¬Å"I will not suffer the work of any of you, whether male or female, to go to waste; each of you is from the otherÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ This part of the verse simply refers that there is no discrimination between a man and a woman in the presence of Allah. In Islam, the superiority only occurs when it comes to the actions. Other features are not important. For instance, being a man or a female, noble or ignoble, those features do not affect the actions that have done. It is crystal clear that there is no difference between a man and a woman. Later on, the Quran states again that there is no discrimination between a man and a woman in Surah An-Nisaa verse 124 Ã¢â¬ But whoever works righteousness, whether male or female, and is a believerÃ¢â¬â those will enter Paradise, and will not be wronged a whit.Ã¢â¬ The only thing that matter is the actions. Another Surah emphasizes the same topic again, in Surah An-Nahl verse 97 Ã¢â¬ Whoever works righteousness, whether male or female, while being a believer, we will grant him a good lifeÃ¢â¬âand We will reward them according to the best of what they used to do.Ã¢â¬ As long as following Allah and embrace the religion, believers will be rewarded by their works and actions. In Islam there are some religious obligations, for instance, routine prayers, fasting, alms, and going on a pilgrimage. A man and a woman have same obligations and duties for those religious obligations. Except some circumstances, to give an example, a woman can be privileged from prayers throughout her mensuration. The same case applies for fasting. There can be some exceptional for the women, otherwise the man and the women are equally responsible for the obligations. In the Pre-Islamic age of ignorance, if someone has a daughter as his or her first child, burying her was vastly common amongst the various Arabian tribes. Surah An-Nahl verses 58-59 describe the how people react when they have a daughter. Ã¢â¬ And when one of them is given news of a female infant, his face darkens, and he chokes with grief. He hides from the people because of the bad news given to him. Shall he keep it in humiliation, or bury it in the dust? What an evil choice they decide on?Ã¢â¬ Quran unquestionably and strictly forbids the infanticide. With the acceptance of Islam, the daughters were protected and treated fairly. Females had gained rights with the Islam. Surely, during the age of ignorance women were treated as if they were the objects, and they had no right. Prior to the advent of Islam, woman had no rights to speak of. When a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s husband died, any of his male relatives would simply appropriate her, as if she was an animal or a commodity ( Al-Ghazili)The Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) has a saying about treating the daughters Ã¢â¬ Whosoever has a daughter and he does not bury her alive, does not insult her, and does not favor his son over her, Allah will admit him to Paradise because of her.Ã¢â¬ (Ibn Hanbal Hadith No 1957). Even just by deducing from this Hadith that in Islam, the daughter has an equal position with the son. Moreover, it can be said that how treating a daughter significant for awarding the father with the Paradise. Woman in the marriage in the Quran states in one of the Surah which is Al-Rum verse 21 Ã¢â¬ And among His Signs is this, that He created for you mates from among yourselves, that you may dwell in tranquility with them, and He has put love and mercy between your (hearts): verily in that are Signs for those who reflect.Ã¢â¬ The Quran clearly indicates that marriage is sharing between the two halves of the society, and its objectives, beside perpetuating human life, are emotional well-being and spiritual harmony. Its bases are love and mercy (Ahmed 138). Furthermore, a woman cannot force into marriage without her own approval according to Islamic Law. The rules for married life in Islam are clear and in harmony with upright human nature. A woman and a man both have equal rights and claims on one another, except for one responsibility, that of leadership. This is a matter which is natural in any collective life and which is consistent with the nature of man (Ahmed 138). In Surah Al-Baqarah verse 228 Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¦ And they (women) have rights similar to those (of men) over them to what is reasonable, but men have a degree (of responsibility) over them. And Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise.Ã¢â¬ Having a degree has to do with the maintenance and protection of a women, and as Khurshid Ahmed refers that it is the natural difference between the sexes which entitles the weaker sex to protection. It does not imply no superiority or advantage before the law, and the manÃ¢â¬â¢s role of leadership in relation to his family does not mean the husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s dictatorship over his wife (138).One of the distinction between Islam and Christianity is about remarriage of the widows. Unlike Christianity, the widows or divorced women do not expose to discrimination against the unmarried women or another. According to Islam, a divorced or widowed woman has the right to remarry without any shame or denunciation. In fact, the Quran allows the betrothal of a divorced or widowed woman even during her period of transition (Jawad 34). In Surah Al-Baqarah 235 states as: It shall be no offence for you openly to propose marriage indirectly to such women or to cherish them in your hearts. Allah knows that you will remember them. Do not arrange to meet them in secret and, if you do, speak to them honorably. But you shall not consummate the marriage before the end of their waiting period. Know that Allah has knowledge of all your thoughts. Therefore, take heed and bear in mind that Allah is forgiving and merciful.This verse mentions there is no sin in offering a marriage implicitly to a woman whose husband died and waiting for the iddat. The explanation of Iddat is a period of time during which a divorced or widowed woman may not remarry (oxforddictionaries.com). This offering can be through expressing the intention of the man by asking questions or stating his wishes to the woman. By this way, womanÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion will find out, and if the woman wishes to marry that man, it will be prevented the woman to promise someone else. Islam values the treating respectful and kind to the parents, but especially to the mothers. In Islam, women are also valued being a mother too. For instance, In the Quran, there is a suggestion for the polite behavior for the mothers. In Surah Luqman verse 14 Ã¢â¬ And we enjoined upon man to be dutiful to his parents. His mother bore him in weakness upon weaknessÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Likewise, in Surah Al-Ahqaf verse 15 Ã¢â¬ And We have enjoined upon man, to his parents, good treatment. His mother carried him with hardship and gave birth to him with hardshipÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Surah Al-Ahqaf verse 15 indicates that Allah ordered to us to treat our parents kindly and take care of them. It is also emphasized that how our mothers suffered during her pregnancy with having sickness and at the same how challenging her labor was. Similarly, in Surah Al-Isra verse 23 is regarding the good and polite treatment towards the parents Ã¢â¬ Your Lord has commanded that you worship none but Him, and that you be good to your parents. If either of them or both of them reach old age with you, do not say to them a word of disrespect, nor scold them, but say to them kind words.Ã¢â¬ There are several sayings of The Prophet Mohammad (pbuh). One day, The Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) stated: Ã¢â¬ Be regretful!Ã¢â¬ when they say Ã¢â¬ Who? O The messenger of Allah!Ã¢â¬ The Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) replied as Ã¢â¬ It is the person who cannot enter the Paradise because he did not show respect one or both of his parents in their old age.Ã¢â¬ (Birr and S?la 251) Furthermore, The Prophet Mohammad has a well-known saying Ã¢â¬ Paradise is at the feet of mothersÃ¢â¬ (Ibn Hanbal). One more case can be given as:A man came to Mohammad (pbuh) asking, Ã¢â¬ O Messenger of Allah, who among the people is the worthiest of my good company? Ã¢â¬ The Prophet (pbuh) said, Ã¢â¬ Your mother.Ã¢â¬ The man said, Ã¢â¬ Then who else?Ã¢â¬ The Prophet (pbuh) said Ã¢â¬ Your mother.Ã¢â¬ The man said, Ã¢â¬ Then who else?Ã¢â¬ The Prophet (pbuh) said, Ã¢â¬ Your mother.Ã¢â¬ The man said, Ã¢â¬ Then who else?Ã¢â¬ Only then did the Prophet (pbuh) say Ã¢â¬ Your father.Ã¢â¬ (Al-Bukhari and Muslim) The financial status of a woman is secured in Quran. It can be easily seen in the verses of the Quran. How to cite The Religion of Islam, Papers
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
The relationship between smoking and early menopause is debatable and unclear specially the dose and duration effect have no clearly demarcated evidence. To solve the unclarity, this study is conducted. Researchers believed that large sample size with long duration and subgroup analysis is required. A 206,256 follow up study was conducted with in 20 years. Women who were premenopausal in 1989 at the time of enrollment were included in this study. Totally 2754 participants experienced early natural menopause. Two-fold of risk was experienced by those who were current smoking against those who never smoked. The risk is increased with dose response among current smokers and duration increasing. Only heavy former smokers had slight risk while light smokers of their equivalent had no risk compared to never smokers. However, the risk level of past smokers cannot regain the never smoker status. In a study conducted on mice the morphology and quantity of egg production was compromised compared to the control group. By then the production of ova ceased early before the average time. If the effect of cigarette on mice had impairment on mice ovary which has congruent finding with this study[early menopause] (6) the increased dose effect and its impact on the function of ovary is one indication of menopause eventually cessation of fertilization will appear. Cognizant of the minimal risk identified among former and current light smokers, it is difficult to conclude the risk level is minimal that can lead people to have smoking of the minimal dose. Because smoking has other health impacts. The risk identified in this study corresponds with other studies. Two systematic reviews had similar report with the current study on the relationship between current smoking and early menopause. Researchers have felt that there is lack of evidence on the level of risk and dose of cigarette consumed. A finding from New Zealand supports the finding of this study showing that risk increases with increased dose. Women who reported smoking 20 or more cigarette per day at baseline and at the 14 years of follow up and current smokers were at 50% more risk compared to never smoked women. In this study increased dose in former and current smoker brought risk while moderate dose and never smoked status has no different effect. A 21 years cohort study revealed that cigarette smoking facilitates early menopause while smoking cessation interventions were associated with late age of menopause. (7) The risk level was also different between quitters before and after 30s. Despite women quit smoking before 30s, their risk level wouldnt return to the never smoked risk level. Conversely, those who proceed smoking smokers quitted before 30s had lesser risk compared to those who quitted at 40s. A study from Korea also affirmed this finding with the evidence of 0.75-year lower rate of early menopause among smokers compared to nonsmokers. The risk is more with increased dose when the initiation of smoking gets lower.(8) As it has been seen in animal models, cigarette has multiple effect on ovarian follicles. It affects the biochemical and structure of the ovary which finally causes lowered estrogen and increased luteinizing hormone. The risk in this study has increased with increased dose and duration which would have increased its effect on the ovarian follicles. A study conducted using women reproductive survey data showed that lower luteal phase progesterone metabolite level which influences the function of ovary intern affects the release of pituitary hormones. Eventually, reproductive problems like infertility and early menopause could happen.(9) Smoking status stratified with BMI categories has not difference. Censored groups because of oophorectomy/hysterectomy hadnt association with smoking history. This study had an explicit identification of confounders and effect estimators. For instance, the result without body mass index and the general analysis had no difference. The effect of smoking on early menopause is unequivocally similar throughout the categories of body mass index classes. Knowing the fact that, this cohort study had large sample size followed for about 20 years, there are limitations observed. Self-reported smoking and menopause status were taken without triangulation because of conducting laboratory test is costwise inefficient. Self-reporting was found effective in many researches regarding smoking habit. But in the baseline assessment past smokers have been asked to recall their history retrospectively which may cause recall bias. ConclusionThis study substantiates the evidence of dose effect of cigarette smoking risk to early natural menopause. Women who consumed minimal dose or quit smoking at their early reproductive age had slight to no effect. Thus, reducing cigarette consumption and cessation of smoking are important public health interventions that could spare women from early menopause and sooner or later other consequences related smoking can be averted. Despite of the shred of evidence reported, still the evidence found is not that much stronger. This study has been conducted for long time but controlling the other effects is hard to achieve. Other studies which should be finished with in lab like on laboratory animals could come up with the impact of dose change. Otherwise the argument will continue. On the other hand, data was collected biennially which is hard for participants to remind their trend of smoking. Educational interventions and rehabilitation of exiting from the habit of smoking can be establishing to promote smokers to cease smoking and prevent the potential but nonsmoker.